Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Biomarker Response of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes Temminck and Schlegel, 1846) Exposed to Profenofos
Assessment of toxicity risks posed by pesticides to aquatic organisms may be a prerequisite to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Effects of the organophosphate pesticide (OP) profenofos to the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and genotoxicity using micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were investigated. Biological samples of liver and blood from Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used. Blood and liver samples were collected for genotoxicity (MN and NA) and TBARS test, respectively. Profenofos caused significant oxidative stress during Day 2 of exposure as indicated by the increase of malonydialdehyde content in the liver samples of O. latipes. However, oxidative stress was significantly reduced the longer the fish were exposed. In terms of MN and NA induction, profenofos exhibited a positive dose-dependent and exposure-time-dependent relationship. The higher the concentration and the longer the exposure time, the higher were the MN and NA frequencies per 1000 erythrocytes. The highest recorded MN and NA frequencies per 1000 erythrocytes at Day 10 were 3 and 11; and 43.11 and 58.22, respectively, with Control registering only 1.33 and 20.89 per 1000 erythrocytes, respectively.
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