Optimization of Farm Income of Communities Vulnerable to Climate Change Conditions

Shaira Steffany B. Granada, Elvira E. Ongy


With the growing concern over climate change impacts locally and globally, the need to take action to adapt and mitigate its consequences are becoming essential. The Philippines with agriculture at its backbone is considered to be much vulnerable to these effects. Rice production, which needs much water, is in danger. Marginalized rain-fed farmers are especially highly susceptible to this. The use of linear programming is of practical importance specifically because resources are always scarce and constrained. With the primary objective of optimizing farm income of marginalized farmers in the context of linear programming, this study primarily designates what crop/s is most optimal instead of rice during drought conditions exacerbated by climate change. Crop alternatives to rice include cassava, corn, mungbean, peanut, sweet potato, and taro/gabi. These crops can thrive under drought conditions and were most commonly cultivated by farmers in Baybay and Albuera, Leyte. Most of the marginal rain-fed rice farmers resided in these areas. Samples were selected following the non-probability sampling technique employing snowball sampling. Results showed that cassava and sweet potato are optimal alternatives to plant given the constraints. Results also revealed that with pronounced drought brought about by climate change, prevalence of poverty among farmers served as limiting factor hindering high farm productivity and income. It is recommended to put emphasis on policies that increase access of farmers to financial assistance to fund their farm operation as well as the irrigation system since increase in budget and water availability, respectively, would consequently increase farmers’ income.


Linear programming, optimization, marginal farm production, climate change


Aydinalp, C. & Cresser, M. S. (2008). The effects of global climate change on agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes3 (5)/1.pdf).

Buzarovska, D. (2012). Optimization of agricultural production under climate change up to 2050 in Pelagonia Region. Retrieved from http://stud.epsilon.slu.se/5134/1/Buzarovska_D_121213.pdf.

Defiesta, G. & Rapera, C. L. (2014). Measuring adaptive capacity of farmers to climate change variability: Application of a composite index to an agricultural community in the Philippines. Retrieved from https://journals.uplb.edu.ph/index.php/JESAM/article/download/1273/pdf_19.

Environmental Defense Fund. (n.d.) Climate change impacts. Retrieved April 2016 from https://www.edf.org/climate/how-climate-change-plunders-planet.

Espinazo, J. A. et al. (2014). Factors associated with microenterprise operators’ non-compliance of business licensing requirements. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/17405966/Factors_associated_with_Non-Compliance_of_Micro-enterprise_Operators.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1977). FAO irrigation and drainage paper no 24: Chapter 6–ETc-single crop coefficient. Retrieved 04 Jan 2017 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/X0490E/x0490e0b.htm.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (1979). FAO irrigation and drainage paper no 33: Crop yield response to water. Retrieved 04 Jan 2017 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2800e/i2800e02.pdf.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2006). FAO irrigation and drainage paper no 56: Crop evapotranspiration. Retrieved from https://www.kimberly.uidaho.edu/water/fao56/fao56.pdf.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2009). Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security and Disaster Risk Management as Entry Point for Climate Change Adaptation. Retrieved 7 Sept 2016 fromhttp://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/778/climate-change_impacts_on_agric_food_security_slides_077en.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2012). FAO irrigation and drainage paper no 66: Crop yield response to water. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2800e/i2800e.pdf

Fortenbacher, D. & Alave, K. (2014). Upland agriculture in the Philippines: Potentials and challenges. Retrieved 10 Sept 2016 from http://www.academia.edu/28699912/Upland_Agriculture_in_the_Philippines_Potential_and_Challenges.

Hoekstra, A. Y. & Chapagain, A. K. (2008). The green, blue, and grey water footprint of rice from both a production and consumption perspective. Retrieved from http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Report40-WaterFootprintRice_1.pdf.

Igwe, K. C. et al. (2013). A linear programming approach to combination of crop, monogastric farm animal and fish enterprises in Ohafia Agricultural Zone, Abia State, Nigeria. Retrieved from https://globaljournals.org/GJSFR_Volume13/3-A-Linear-Programming-Approach-to.pdf.

Jose, A. M. & Cruz, N. A. (1999). Climate change impacts and responses in the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.int-res.com/articles/cr/12/c012p077.pdf.

Karfakis, P. et.al. (2013). The assessment of the socio-economic impacts of climate change at household level and policy implications. FAO. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3084e/i3084e11.pdf.

Lansigan, F. P. & Salvacion, A. R. (2007). Assessing the effect of climate change on rice and corn yields in selected provinces in the Philippines. Retrieved from http://nap.psa.gov.ph/ncs/10thNCS/papers/invited%20papers/ips-20/ips20-02.pdf.

Lasco, R. D. et al. (2011). Climate change adaptation for smallholder farmers in Southeast Asia. Retrieved from http://www.seachangecop.org/files/documents/Lasco_et_al_2011_CCA_Guidebook_v5.pdf.

Majeke, F. (2013). Incorporating crop rotation requirements in a linear programming model: A case study of a rural farmer in Bindura, Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://iresearcher.org/P%2011,%2099-105.pdf.

Majeke, F. et al. (2013). Modelling a small farm livelihood system using linear programming in Bindura, Zimbabwe. Retrieved from http://www.isca.in/IJMS/Archive/v2/i5/4.ISCA-RJMS-2013-004.pdf.

Mekonnen, M. M. & Hoekstra, A. Y. (2010). The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Retrieved from http://wfn.project-platforms.com/Reports/Report47-WaterFootprintCrops-Vol1.pdf.

Mohanty, S. et. al. (2012). Rice and climate change: Significance for food security and vulnerability. Retrieved from http://books.irri.org/DPS49_content.pdf.

Ngilangil, L. E. et al. (2013). Farmers’ awareness and knowledge on climate change adaptation strategies in Northern Luzon, Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.eisrjc.com/documents/FARMERS%E2%80%99_AWARENESS_AND_KNOWLEDGE_ON_CLIMATE_CHANGE_1380532255.pdf.

OXFAM & VSU. (2016). Terminal report: Cassava project in Leyte and Samar (unpublished research). Visayas State University, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines.

Perez, R. T. 2009. Climate change in the Philippines. Retrieved 7 Sept 2016 from http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/research/centers/aki_pdf_/_conferences/climateChangePresentation.pdf.

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). (2016). Climatology and agrometeorology. Retrieved from http://pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/climate/climate-prediction/monthly-rainfall-forecast/27-climatology-and-agrometeorology

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2015). CountrySTAT Philippines: Cost and Returns. Retrieved from http://countrystat.psa.gov.ph/?cont=10&pageid=1&ma=Q20CPCOP

Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). (2016). CountrySTAT Philippines: Rootcrops: Farmgate prices by geolocation, commodity, year, and period. Retrieved 06 April 2017 from http://countrystat.psa.gov.ph/selection.asp

PhilRootcrops (VSU). 2016. Developing sweet potato value chains for food in Leyte and Samar (Unpublished Research). Visayas State University, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines.

Ranada, P. (2016). PH drops in 2016 list of countries vulnerable to climate change. Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/science-nature/environment/113064-philippines-2016-climate-change-vulnerability-index.

Savva, A. P. & Frenken, K. (2002). FAO irrigation manual module 4: Crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai593e/ai593e00.pdf.

Shah, A. (2015). Climate change and global warming introduction. Global issues. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/article/233/climate-change-and-global-warming-introduction.

Zhai, F. and J. Zhuang. (n.d). Agricultural impact of climate change: A general equilibrium analysis with special reference to Southeast Asia. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/155986/adbi-wp131.pdf.

Full Text: JST_2017 09


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.